California

Appellations

Los Carneros is typically famous for cool climate varietals such as Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. It benefits from the cool morning fogs and breezes that help to keep acidities high. These high acidities also favour the production of quality sparkling wine, a category that is consistently improving and where great value can be found.
Casablanca is a small, newly recognised appelation in Chilean winemaking. Although it falls under the overall Aconcagua region, Casablanca's vine varieties, soil and climate is quite different to the bulk of Aconcaguan wine production. Here the climate is distinctly coastal, with vineyards being cooled considerably by both the mists sweeping in off the Pacific and the Humbolt current. Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay are both showing real promise as well as a smattering of Riesling.
The largest and perhaps most varied of California’s wine-growing regions, the Central Coast produces the majority of the state's wine. The sprawling district covers most of the vineyard land between San Francisco and Santa Barbara from the coast inland nearly all the way to the Central Valley. Encompassing an extremely diverse array of climates, soil types, and wine styles, it contains many smaller sub-AVAs, including Monterey, Paso Robles, Santa Ynez Valley, Santa Maria Valley, and Santa Cruz Mountains.
The reputation of Chilean wine has improved considerably over the last decade. Indeed, while the majority of production is centred around red, varietally labelled wines that offer great value for everyday drinking, there is an ever-growing number of serious, quality focused winemakers who are making use of exceptional terroirs that have often been described akin to wine-growing paradise.
A subzone of the Curico district, Colchagua is one of finest areas in Chile for the production of red wines.
The Mendocino County wine is an appellation that designates wine made from grapes grown mostly in Mendocino County, California. The region is part of the larger North Coast AVA and one of California's largest and most climatically diverse wine growing regions.
Arguably Americas most important wine growing region, home to the likes of Dominus, Heitz, Cain Cellars and Opus One. Bordeaux varietals are key in this 40 mile long North-South valley that stretches from the San Fransico Bay up towards Calistoga and the sheer variety of different climats and vineyard sites is as bewildering as the sheer variety of styles of wine produced. At their best these can be some of the most opulent examples of Cabernet Sauvignon in the world - truly great wines with dinstinctly long cellaring potentials, but more youthful approachability than their european counterparts.
Oakville is one of California's most lauded appellations. Found between Rutherford and Yountville - in the heart of Napa - Oakville has remained at the core of the Valley's success, gaining worldwide recognition for its opulent Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.
The San Francisco Bay AVA is a large American Viticultural Area (AVA) centered around the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. The AVA includes the counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Francisco and San Mateo as well as parts of Santa Cruz and San Benito counties. It was established in 1999 and extended in 2006.
Santa Cruz Mountains is, as its name suggests, a mountainous AVA that sits between Monterey Bay and San Francisco. The rugged terroir in the mountains can be extremely trying for vignerons, but those who persevere are rewarded with some of California's most celebrated wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon.
Santa Maria Valley is an American Viticultural Area (a.k.a. AVA) located in Northern Santa Barbara County and San Luis Obispo County, California, the oldest in this portion of California. Grape growing in this region dates back to the Mexican Colonial period of the 1830s. In the late '60s commercial vineyards were planted to supply wineries around the state. Since then, vineyards in the valley have come to encompass 7,500 acres (3,000 ha).
Rita Hills is part of the larger Santa Ynez Valley AVA, located between the towns of Lompoc and Buellton with the Purisima Hills on the north and the Santa Rosa Hills on the south. The wine region is exposed to fog and coastal breezes from the nearby Pacific Ocean.
The Sonoma Coast appellation is the largest licensed American Viticultural Area (AVA) in the United States covering more than 200,000 hectares of land. In other words, it is enormous. To give you an idea of how enormous, Rioja has just over 60,000 hectares under vine. Naturally this makes drawing generalised conclusions about site specificity for the region pretty much impossible.

As a result, smaller unofficial designations are starting to gain traction – describing regions that have some contiguous factors and, leaving winemaking styles to one side, are likely to imbue the final wines with a recognisable sense of place. One such, is the “True Sonoma Coast”, used to describe the vineyards that “actually lie along the coast of Sonoma County!” As Andy Peay goes on, “This means that the afternoon breeze that comes in every day around noon cools vineyards unobstructed by higher western coastal ridges keeping top temperatures out of the 90s and, for those in the cool inversion layer below 1,000 feet, out of the 80s. The breezes and cool weather also often inhibit fruit set and a consequence of farming on the coast is that the yields are about half of what you can get inland.

This “true” Sonoma Coast can be further divided into three regions: the northern region around the town of Annapolis off Sea Ranch; the central region with the oldest vineyards on the coast now referred to by some as Fort Ross/Seaview Road; and the southern region near the town of Occidental. Peay Vineyards was a pioneer in the far northern section. We are discovering, however, that a critical factor for both vineyards in the northern and for those in the southern Sonoma Coast, is our elevation.

Our vineyard lies at 650-825 feet in elevation. Normally, temperatures fall by 1°F for every 400 foot gain in elevation. Along the Pacific Coast, this phenomenon is inverted as a layer of cold air ‹the inversion layer‹ is produced by a warm, less dense air mass moving towards the coast over the cooler, denser air caused by oceanic upwelling along the coast. This layer is maintained throughout the day and the breezes off the coast act as a fan blowing cold air along unobstructed land laying from sea level to 1,000 feet in elevation. Above this height, as in the central Sonoma Coast, and further inland, the normal relationship between temperature and elevation apply and it is hotter. Vineyards in this inversion layer are much cooler and as a result we achieve the Holy Grail in terms of high quality grape growing: cool sunlight.”